Introduction of Agriculture sprayers
Modern sprayers are designed for specific applications to maximize spray efficiency. There are ten types of sprayers commonly used in agricultural spraying equipment with different water types, psi pressures, distance/coverage capabilities, capacities, and water quantities.
The types of waterers are: backpack, spot, ATV, UTV, drag, bridge, 3-point hit, boom, boomless, and foger. Sprays are often used to apply water, herbicides, plant actives and/or chemicals that treat pests (fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides). The price of sprayers ranges from US $ 30 to US $ 8,600 depending on the capacity and capabilities of the sprayer and its purpose.
There are ten (10) specifications that can affect sprayer selection: nozzle size, PSI pressure range, GPM flow capacity, pump type, tank volume capacity, spray spread (swath) capacity, vertical and horizontal spray space, sprayer alignment, and string length.
Choosing the right sprayer for a particular job requires understanding the different types of sprayers and their design and performance, as well as all the details of the spraying job. Choose a sprayer with the right equipment and capabilities to meet the needs of any job. The sprayer is used for the following purposes:
Application of herbicides to eliminate weeds. 2. Application of fungicides to reduce fungal diseases. 3. Application of insecticides to control insects. 4. Application of micronutrients in plants. The main functions of the sprayer are:
Break the liquid into effective droplets. 2. Spread them evenly over the wood. 3. To adjust the amount of water to avoid rapid.
Types of agricultural sprayers
Using hand sprayers
A knapsack sprayer is an easy-to-use backpack sprayer. These manual sprayers are intended for small plant treatments or small agricultural applications. It involves applying water or liquid chemicals to a small area of land. The manual operator works thanks to the air pump.
The pump injects air into the liquid and compresses the contents of the liquid.
The nozzle spray pattern increases with high pressure. Once the pressure in the sprayer is reduced, the spraying process slows down.
Low pressure sprayers
Low pressure sprinklers come in different sizes depending on the capacity and size of the tank. These include tractors, trailers, and truck-mounted models. They work on the principles of hydraulics, and sprayers include air components, pressure gauges and regulators.
High pressure sprayers
High-pressure sprayers are used to spray thickets and tall trees from the forest. The principles of performance of high speed runners are similar to those of low speed runners. They also run on hydraulics but can work at pressures of up to 6800 kilopascals
Air sprayers are useful for applying concentrated chemicals through the air. Air that carries chemicals disperses and dissolves them. The most common type of air sprayer is a fruit planter that is used to grow fruit trees. They are also expensive to buy and have high maintenance costs.
You can use a fogger to spray a liquid pesticide in the form of a vapor. They are used in greenhouses or in areas full of plants that require treatment. A 110-120 volt electric motor serves as the power source for the swimmers. Some of them use fuel-burning engines. Some larger mowers use a 12 volt electric motor.
Their pumps work at a pressure of up to 12,400 kPa and can pump water for a long time. Foggers tend to drift due to windy conditions.
Calibration and operation
Before choosing which sprayer to use, check the label and IPM guidelines for the specific pesticide to be applied. These provide recommended application rates, types of equipment suitable for application, nozzle types and other information for best results. Depending on the type of plant and size, choose a sprayer that will provide a good balance of droplet size and coverage.
Calibration of sprayers is important to achieve good control without applying too much product. Low volume sprinklers can provide even coverage and small items to spray. Where applicable, most brands have recommendations for smaller components.
When preparing a tank mix, you must consider both the treatment and water requirements. The dosage, the amount of chemicals that should be applied to one area, and the signs are shown. In most poisons, the dose is about 4-12 oz. per 100 gal. provided. Rate selection should be made based on the level of infection, type and maturity of the crop, past experience and other variables. If this is the first time a pesticide has been used, the mid-range dosage is a good starting point.
The amount of water needed to cover the growing area depends on the type of equipment used. With hydraulic sprinklers, the rate reaches 25 to 50 gal. per 10,000 m². pi is normal. Low volume sprayers use only 1/4-2 gal. per 10,000 m². ft.
Most chemical labels list the amount of pesticide that will dissolve in 100 gallons of water, not an easy amount to apply to a given area. Some labels now indicate the amount of chemical that should be applied per acre. The manual that comes with every sprayer has a chart or table that helps determine how much sprayer to mix with water. This is usually based on 10,000 m². ft. area, so you will need to adjust the rate based on the area of the crop being sprayed.
The method you use to spray your plants is very important to get good coverage. It must be designed to match the type of equipment that will be used. With a hand gun, a sweeping motion over the leaf will allow the liquid to penetrate and reach the underside of the leaf.
With the fan type, the ventilation system must be adjusted so that all the heat can receive the pesticide; where the unit ensures good air circulation. Using an air circulation system, such as HAF, will improve the movement and distribution of air and steam. Fans should continue to run for 30-60 minutes after the spray operation is completed.
Checks should be made to ensure that the sprayer is working properly and that adequate coverage is being achieved. A good way to check coverage from a hydraulic sprinkler or fogger is to use a water-sensitive sheet from a local sprinkler supplier. The document is attached to the representative’s document and cover. When exposed to water droplets, dots will appear showing the size and quantity of the paper received.
For fog applications, coating analysis can be done using fluorescent dyes in water. Placing a representative paper under ultraviolet or black light will show droplet size and distribution.
Another tool that can help improve the process and better coverage is to keep a diary of the spraying performance and the results achieved. This should include the date, time and location of the request; crop and pest; pesticides used; tank mix; and an evaluation of the results obtained.
Adjustments should be made in subsequent applications to attempt to improve results. Proper selection, design and performance of irrigation equipment is essential to achieve optimum pest control, and to meet environmental and safety requirements.