About Tillage

Tillage can describe it as a “physical change of the soil” to create favorable conditions for plant growth. Therefore, by planting, we create good air and water absorption capacity in the soil. In addition, we also destroy pests by removing their habitat.

The word “Tillage” comes from the Anglo-Saxon words “tilian” and “teolian”. It means plowing and preparing the ground for sowing, planting and cultivating crops. But when you know what gardening means, you must think then what is “gardening”? Many people are often confused between these simple words. So here is the answer that will clear your doubts.


  • To facilitate adequate soil aeration for gaseous exchange in the seed and root zone
  • Adequate seed-soil contact to permit water flow to seed and seedling roots
  • A non-crusted soil to permit seedling emergence
  • A low-density soil that permits root elongation and proliferation
  • To create an environment that provides adequate light to the seedling (weed free environment).
  • To create pest and pathogen free environment
  • To mix the applied manures and fertilizers with the soil
  • To remove the hardpan, if any to increase the soil depth for water absorption

What kind of Tillage equipment?

Agricultural implements are agricultural tools used to work well on the land. Planting tools are divided into two types according to their importance, which are:

The Primary Tillage tool

The first plowing tool was an agricultural tool used to open and loosen the soil. A hoe is a perfect example of a basic farming tool, which comes in three forms: woode15n, iron, and specialized plows.

Secondary Tillage tool

The second plowing tool is an agricultural tool that is used to loosen the soil, break the clod, make the grass healthy, control weeds, and loosen the soil properly. In addition, the cultivator’s plow, harrow, plank and roller, and disc harrow are some examples of secondary cultivation tools.


Tillage has a significant effect on soil physical characteristics such as pore space, structure, bulk density, water content and color. The effect of planting these things is lost for about a month. Therefore tillage practices have the greatest effect on seed yield, seed yield and establishment.



Soil is composed of particles of different sizes. The air-filled spaces between these elements make up the void space. When the field is plowed, the particles in the soil are collected randomly and the open space is increased. When the soil is good, the capillary and non-capillary spaces will be equal. This makes the circulation of air and water in the soil easier and increases infiltration.


Soils with crumbly and granular clods are considered soils of good structure. When the soil is cultivated with optimum water, a sediment system is formed so that soil loss through erosion is greatly reduced. Rain is kept in the large pores, between the aggregates and also in the microspore pores of the aggregates.

Soil aggregate with a size of 1-5 mm is considered good for plant growth. Small aggregates can close soil pores and large ones can have large gaps between them and affect the rootlet development of seedlings. Soil structure is destroyed when agriculture is carried out with inappropriate soil water.

Apparent density

When the soil is loosened, the volume of the soil increases without any effect on the weight. Therefore, the gross density of arable land is lower than that of cultivated land.


Organic matter is the main reason for the brown and gray color of the soil. Tillage increases oxidation and rotting causing changes.


Farming that keeps water low makes it better in a number of ways. The rate of water availability depends on soil porosity, soil depth, and porosity. All of these characteristics are enhanced by farming.

Smoothness is a measure of small elevations and depressions caused by furrows and ridges, divots and depressions. The intensity of randomness shows the ups and downs in the field without a pattern as it happens after planting.

It affects the surface protection of the depression or the temporary protection of the rain. Tillage increases infiltration rate, water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity.

Tropical soil

Cultivation creates optimal soil temperatures for seed and seedling establishment. Tillage loosens the surface of the soil, which leads to a decrease in thermal conductivity and heat capacity.

Benefits of Tillage

  • Improves soil conditions through removal of plants from the environment,
  • Improves the physical condition of the soil through the application of residues that allow more water to enter the soil.
  • vs. More infiltration is caused by grass on the ground and channels formed by the decomposition of dead roots,
  • Less resistance to root growth due to better soil structure
  • Outside the rain is less,
  • Product satisfaction,
  • Soil compaction is less due to less movement of heavy plowing vehicles and less erosion compared to plowing.

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