Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) family Gramineae (Poaceae) is the most widely cultivated crop in India. It provides employment to more than one million people directly or indirectly in addition to investing heavily in public assets.
The countries of sugar world between Latitude on 36.7 ° North of the north and 31.0 ° in the south of paying and temperatures. Sugar is from New Guinea where it has been known for thousands of years.
Sugarcane plants spread along the routes of people migrating to Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Here, it was combined with sugarcane relatives to create the commercial sugarcane we know today.
Production of Sugarcane In India
Sugarcane plays an important role in India’s economy. In 2018, 79.9% of India’s total sugarcane was used for the production of white sugar, 11.29% was used for the production of jaggery and 8.80% was used as seed and animal feed. 840.16 Mt of sugarcane was exported in 2019. Knowing the status is important for effective decisions for decision makers.
The purpose of this study is to find a suitable forecasting model for sugarcane production. India and the major sugarcane producing states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh were selected.
Sugarcane production data from 1950 to 2015 are used for training and from 2016 to 2018 to test the model.
It is said that sugarcane production in India is due to drought such as reduced arable land and lack of rain, declining soil health, cost of inputs, farmers and people research is not satisfactory if the price of sugarcane is fixed by the government; Low yields and high labor costs also contributed.
The production of sugarcane in 2019-2020 is estimated using mobile research and knowing the current situation of sugarcane production level in India, where sugarcane production is involved and the net production of sugarcane is put it together.
This study concluded that by increasing the price of sugarcane, we can adjust production and demand because farmers get negative returns.
Sugarcane Cultivation Process
Soil requirements for growing sugarcane:
Sugarcane grows well in light soils, but can be grown in light and heavy clay soils, as long as there is sufficient moisture in the original soil type and good moisture in the form the last floor. In northern India, it is commonly grown in the loams and clay loams of the Gangetic and other reserves, while in the interior of India,
It is grown in brown or red, which next to black cotton soil. In many places, dark clay soil 120-150 cm deep is used to cover the face of murum (scattered traprock) for this plant. Soil pH should be between 6.0 and 8.0.
Adverse soil reaction (pH) affects sugarcane production. Soil should be protected based on acidity, alkalinity and other factors that inhibit sugarcane production. The main characteristic of the land suitable for growing sugarcane is that they must have a high content of organic matter and be good. Therefore, heavy clay soil with good drainage or warm soil and wet areas are also suitable for this plant.
The temperature is high during the growing season, and the average monthly temperature does not fall below 21ºC. Sugarcane grows best in warm, sunny, frost-free areas. it requires a tropical or subtropical climate with a minimum annual humidity of 600 mm.
However, it also grows well in subtropical climates
it can grow well where the temperature ranges from 20 to 350C. The optimum temperature for sowing seeds is 32 to 38 degrees Celsius.
Sugarcane tolerates long periods of sunshine of about 12 to 14 hours. High humidity (80-85%) promotes rapid sugarcane growth during the growing season
100 cm to 175 cm of rain is good for sugarcane production. In tropical and subtropical regions where sugarcane is grown extensively due to the long rainy season. Freezing damages sugarcane. It can be grown well on the coast as the salty air is good for its breeding for crops.
Process of Distribution
Based on the study of sugarcane growing conditions as mentioned in the following paragraphs, three different strands of sugarcane cultivation can be distinguished.
(i) The Satluj-Ganga region of Punjab in Bihar accounts for 51% of the total regional and 60% of the total national production. (ii) black earth belt from Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu along the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
(iii) Coastal Andhra and Krishna Valley. Here, it is useful to make a comparison between sugarcane cultivation in North and South India. In the plains of North India, the temperature varies from 30 °C to 35 °C and the dry and hot air called “loo” in May and June inhibits the growth of cane. During the winter months of December and January, there is a possibility of damaging the sugarcane crop due to the extreme cold and accompanying frost. Therefore, the yield/hectare is low. In southern India, on the other hand, there is no “toilet” in the summer and the temperature is comfortable in the winter without frost, along with the sea breeze and the coastal areas are some in a climate that is very useful for this. crops. .
The complexity of sugarcane cultivation in India is that although southern India offers better climatic conditions for sugarcane growth, the most important sugarcane belt is located in northern India. There are two reasons for such a conflict situation.
Before the First World War, this area was mainly used for indigo cultivation, which was the most popular income for farmers at the time. But with the introduction of cheap aniline cloth, indigo lost its market, and its production had to be stopped after the First World War.
Therefore, the place was taken by the cultivation of sugar cane. Another reason is that sugarcane faces tough competition for land from many other crops such as cotton, tobacco, groundnut, coconut, etc. in the south.