Introduction of Production of Rice
Rice is one of the major grains of India and has the largest area under rice cultivation. India is the second largest producer of Rice and exporter of rice in the world.
In 2020, world paddy rice production is 756.7 million metric tons (834.1 million short), led by China and India with a total of 52% of this total. Rice production in India has increased from 53.6 million tonnes in FY 1980 to 130 million tonnes in FY 2021-22. Rice yield per hectare in 2021-22 is 2809 kg/hectare.
India is the leading exporter of Basmati rice in the world market. In the financial year 2018-2019, India exported about one million metric tons of Basmati rice worth USD 4.7 billion.
Many cultures have evidence of early rice cultivation, including China, India, and Southeast Asian civilizations. However, the earliest archaeological evidence comes from central and eastern China and dates from 7000 to 5000 BCE. More than 90% of the world’s rice is grown in Asia, mainly in China, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh, and small amounts are grown in Japan, Pakistan and various Southeast Asian countries. Rice is also grown in parts of Europe, North and South America, and Australia.
With the exception of the so-called mountain rice, this plant is grown in submergence in coastal areas, where water flows, and along rivers and in tropical regions, medium heat, and high heat. The seeds are planted in the prepared beds, and when the seeds are 25-50 days old, they are transplanted into the fields, or paddy fields, which are broken and planted under 5-10 cm (2-4 inches) of water. , continues to sink into the bloom.
In the highlands, the rice fields are usually on the ground to maintain the flood rice fields at different heights. The success of rice production depends on adequate irrigation, including the construction of dams and water wheels, and the quality of the soil. Long sun exposure is important.
Rice yields vary widely, from 700 to 4,000 kilograms per hectare (600 to 3,500 pounds per acre). Good irrigation, that is, flooding the field to a depth of a few inches for most of the growing season, is an important requirement for productive land use.
In Asia, paddy is grown in three main types of soil, including hard clay subsoil a few inches from the surface; silts and soft clays and soft soils harden as they dry; and peat and “peat” with peat, if the depth of peat is not great. The soil should be washed and dried before harvesting.
When combined or threshed, the grain must be dried to about 14 percent of water to prevent it from spoiling during storage. When harvesters are used, the crop is “shocked” in some way to protect the grain from rain.
List of Rice producing Countries
Rice Production in China
China, which may affect the performance of rice production in the future. We calculate technical efficiency, efficiency ratio, and statistical efficiency using data collected in 2015 through face-to-face interviews of 450 households who cultivated 3096 plots of land in five rice-producing regions in China.
We use a one-step stochastic frontier model to calculate technical efficiency and regress efficiency on sociodemographic and physical characteristics to find the influencing variables. The variables affecting the technical performance of three different types of rice cultivation were compared. We also calculate technical efficiency using Heckman’s selection model, which deals with different technologies and the extent of self-selection.
The results show that: the technical efficiency value identified using the one-step stochastic frontier method is 0.74. When self-selection is taken into account using the Heckman selection model, the value of productivity increases to 0.80; mechanization during the chemical application process has a positive effect on technical efficiency,
but mechanization does not affect efficiency during the planting and harvesting period; machinery is used extensively in both land and labor, and the use of machinery in small farms has led to inefficiencies;
Most of the rice farmers work at the best level. Future policies should focus on encouraging the transfer of agricultural land to rural areas in order to achieve quantitative and labor efficiency and promote early chemical processing of rice cultivation to improve efficiency. technology.
Rice Production In India
These methods are used to grow rice in India.
1. Delivery process: Sowing is done by hand. This method is used in areas that are less dry and less fertile and that do not have much work to do in the fields. This is the simplest method that requires little input but the yield is also small.
2. Shipping Procedure: Two people do the work of plowing the land and sowing seeds. This process is mostly confined to peninsular India.
3. Migration process: This process is carried out in areas with fertile soil, high rainfall and high activity. To start, the seeds are planted in the nursery and prepared seedlings. After 4-5 weeks, the seeds are removed and planted in a field that has already been prepared for this purpose. The whole process is done by hand. So it is a difficult process and requires heavy input. But at the same time, it offers some of the highest quality.
4. Japanese method: This method involves using high-yielding varieties, planting in high-quality nurseries, and planting in rows to reduce weeding and fertilization. It also involves the use of large amounts of fertilizer to achieve high yields. The Japanese rice cultivation system has been successfully adopted in the major rice growing regions of India.