The Production of Cotton
Cotton is considered as a soft and smooth fiber that grows in the form of a ball or can be said to have a covering around the seed. If we talk about cotton from a biological perspective, it belongs to the genus Gossypium and its family is Malvaxeae.
Cotton fiber is very important for the country’s economic growth. This is because it is not a food but a crop that is grown only to earn more money. The cotton plant is basically a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The cotton plant surrounds the seed and whenever good conditions occur, this cotton ball will spread the seed for planting or growth process.
The main areas where you can find cotton growing are Egypt, America, Africa and India. If we talk about the use of this cotton thread, most of the times the thread is spun in a circle and the yarn is produced. Woven fabric is used to make clothes from this thread or yarn.
In the world of clothing, cotton is the most commonly used fiber. Currently, the world produces almost 25 million tons of cotton per year. This includes 2.5 percent of agricultural land. If we talk about the largest cotton producer in the world, it is India while the largest exporter of lint cotton in the world is America.
Cotton is widely used for commercial purposes and is an important fiber that plays a major role in increasing the economic growth of a country. In this article, you will get information about cotton fiber, the use of cotton fiber, the characteristics of cotton fiber, the use of cotton fiber, growing and making cotton fabric from the cotton fiber we got, etc. This article is brought to you by Vedantu, it will help you understand the cotton plant better.
Cotton production in India
India has the largest Cotton growing Country in the world, although it is the third largest producer of cotton after China and the United States. Currently, it is planted in more than 6% of the fruit area India. 21% of the world cotton production in India. The yield per kilogram hectare which is currently 445kg/ha is still lower than the international average which is about 765 Kgs kgs/ha.
Growing conditions for Cotton
Cotton is a crop of tropical and subtropical areas that require a high temperature that varies between 21 ° C and 30 ° C. Cotton growth slows down when temperatures drop below 20°C. Frost is the number one enemy of cotton and it grows in areas with at least 210 frost-free days per year.
The minimum water requirement can be met with an average annual rainfall of 50 to 100 cm. However, it is best grown in low rainfall areas using irrigation. About one-third of the total area under cotton is irrigated. In 1988-1989, 24.77 lakh hectares were irrigated out of a total of 73.43 hectares, or 33.73% of the total cotton area.
About 80% of the irrigated area devoted to cotton is found in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan. Monsoon weather and heavy rains during the boll opening season damage cotton as the plant becomes vulnerable to pests and diseases. Heavy rains at the beginning and sunny, dry weather during the ripening period are conducive to a good harvest.
Growth and development (growth cycle) of cotton:
From germination to emergence:
The time required for germination depends on the temperature of the soil. In India, cotton planted in June-July takes 5-6 days to emerge.
From bud to flower:
The first cotton leaves appear 10 to 12 days after emergence. Leaf development reaches its peak about three weeks after the first buds appear. The first flower buds appear on the lowest fruit branch 35 to 45 days after emergence, depending on the temperature.
The time from the appearance of the first flower (square) to the opening of the flower can be 25-30 days. Squaring can be 35-70 DAS depending on species, conditions and management. Flowering begins 20-35 days after the first square type will continue for 60-80 days. However, the maximum flowering time varies from 7 to 100 DAS.
The emergence of a large number of flowers is seen for some time, then it falls. During the peak flowering period, vegetative growth is almost invisible and as soon as the flowering rate decreases, vegetative growth begins again. Flowering time is shortened by early sowing, strong plant competition and water stress. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of flowers produced and the time of flowering, resulting in a similar relationship between the time of flowering and yield. The environment and cultural practices have little effect on the flowering period, but the number of flowers can be increased by factors that are good for growth.
State wise Cotton production in India
In India, cotton is grown in three different agro-ecological regions, namely the 2northern region (Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan), the central region (Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh) and the southern region (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu) and Karnataka). .
Maharashtra is the largest producer and produces 29.78% of the total cotton in India
Accounting for 19.33% of the total production and 21.33% of the country’s cotton area, Gujarat is the second largest cotton producing state in India. Andhra Pradesh:
Andhra Pradesh represents 12.46% of the production and 10.47% of the area of India.
Punjab rose from first position in 1990-91 to fourth position in 2002-03 as the largest producer of cotton in India. Harana:
Accounting for 11.91% of the production and 6.77% of the area, Haryana is the fifth largest producer of cotton in India.