Barley is an important annual cereal that belongs to the genus Hordeum of the Poaceae family and is commonly used for cooking and making malts. Malt refers to grain that has been softened by water, then germinated and dried. It is usually made from barley. Malt is often used for brewing beer and distilling whiskey.
Barley is one of the important grains. Many people appreciate its nutty taste. It’s like wheat. However, it is lighter in appearance than wheat. It is a well-planted corn.
Malt refers to grain that has been germinated and then dried through a process known as malting. It is usually made from barley; However, some other fruits can also be used to make malt. It is mainly used for brewing and distillation. The word malt comes from the Old English word meltan which means to melt.
Barley malt is made from malted barley that is dried in a process called “malting”. The grains are brought to sprout by placing in water, and stop the germination by exposing them to hot air.
World Barley Production by Country
The Russian Federation is the world’s largest producer of barley, producing 16,991,907 tons per year.
France comes in second with 11,193,034 annual production. With 9,583,600 units of production per year, Germany is the third largest producer of barley.
The United Kingdom, with 6,510,000 tons produced annually, is ranked 9.
Barley production in the Russian Federation
In terms of prices, barley production is expected to reach $X in 2021 and export prices. However, during the period under review, production showed a stable trend. The highest figure was recorded in 2014 when production increased by 38%. As a result, the output reaches the maximum level of $X. From 2015 to 2021, production growth remained at a relatively low rate. In 2021, the average barley yield in Russia fell by 10 tons per ha, down -2.7% from last year’s figure.
The number of seeds increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% from 2012 to 2021; However, the program showed that some significant changes were recorded during the period under review. The process of growth appeared faster in 2017 with an increase of 19%. As a result, the yield is about X tons per ha. From 2018 to 2021, the average barley yield remains at a low level.
Despite the increase in modern farming techniques and methods, climate conditions can still affect future crop yields. In 2021, the total area provided in terms of barley production in Russia stands at X, with an increase of 1.6% compared to the previous year. The harvest area increased at an average annual rate of +1.1% from 2012 to 2021; this trend remains stable, as only minor changes were observed during the analyzed period.
The pace of growth was most evident in 2014 with an increase of 12%. As a result, the harvest area reached their highest X level. From 2015 to 2021, the area growth of barley harvest remained at a low level.
How to Grow barley?
Barley grows best in cool tropical climates. Barley growers plant crops during two growing seasons – winter and spring. October is the best month for planting winter barley, while January is the best month for spring varieties. Barley needs well-drained soil and enough sun to grow.
Farmers plant crops in rows that are spaced about 12 inches apart. Spring barley grows in about 60 to 70 days, while winter barley grows in about 60 days after the start of spring. This fast-growing process makes barley suitable for converting other grains such as wheat.
Barley area and production:
Barley is an important cereal in the world with an annual production of 132 M t and about 528 M ha with an average of 2.5 t ha-1. As mentioned above, it is grown in all countries where wheat can be grown successfully for food, drink, or animal feed. In India, barley is grown in all states where wheat is grown.
In India, according to the 2008-09 statistics, barley is grown in an area of 0.71 M ha with a production of 1.69 M t and a production of 2394 kg ha-1. The maximum area (0.29 M ha) and production (0.89 M t) under barley is found in Rajasthan while the highest yield (3491 kg ha-1) is in Haryana.
In the last two decades, barley acreage in India has increased from 3.0 M ha to 0.64 M ha and production from 3.0 M t to 1.14 Mt. However, the average yield increased from 1.2 to 1.8 t ha-1 thanks to the development of advanced varieties. This is due to farmers’ preference for more profitable winter crops like wheat, mustard and bengalgram.
Climate requirements for barley production:
Almost two-thirds of the world’s barley production takes place in humid or semi-arid regions. It has extensive environmental flexibility. It is grown at latitude 64°N in Alaska, 67°N in Finland and 70°N in Norway. Only corn comes from these high mountains.
In India, barley cultivation extends from the foothills to an altitude of around 4575 m in the Himalayas. It is best placed in the colder regions of the northern states. It is less important south of 20°N, although it can be grown successfully anywhere wheat can be grown.
Like wheat, barley grows best in cool climates with a growing season of about five months. It is suitable for areas with low or unpredictable rainfall.
In one region, the barley crop grows 2 to 3 weeks before wheat and thus avoids soil water stress, if any. A place that is always hot and humid is not suitable for this culture. Frosts during flowering and heavy rains during the development of corn destroy crops.