Jute is an important natural fiber in India next to cotton. In the market and industry, jute and mesta are sold together as raw jute because their uses are almost the same. Raw jute plays an important role in the country’s economy. Raw jute is considered as a raw material source for packaging industry only.
And now, it has become a versatile material for various applications, such as the textile industry, the paper industry, the industrial and automotive industries, used as a soil protector, used as a decorative material and usage, etc. Since raw jute is a non-renewable and renewable material,
it is considered as an eco-friendly crop and helps in sustaining the environment and the balance of the environment. Another attractive feature of jute is its easy availability, endless quantity and cheap price. Additionally, it can be mixed with other natural and man-made fibers.
Although the jute area is stable at 8 lakh hectares in the country, jute production has doubled to 22.12 qtl per hectare in 2010-11 since the division of the country from 11 qtl per hectare to the total production of raw jute in the country. approximately 10.58 million bales of 180 kilograms each.
This was done through the development of advanced, short-term and other ICAR production technologies, including fertilizer management, weed control, agricultural machinery, and pest control. CRIJAF (ICAR) has developed about 15 types of high yielding jute and related fibers.
Production and distribution of approved seeds of newly introduced species is the need of the hour for further productivity improvement. ICAR has developed a method for the production of quality seeds of new varieties of jute introduced in its farms, which can increase the yield by at least 20-30%.
The five most important issues, i.e. productivity improvement, quality improvement, jute retting, agricultural machinery and quality seed production, are being worked on by ICAR in various workshops, which have contributed to the current level of production by and full support from Jute. Technical Information and Jute Development Department of the Ministry of Agriculture.
Climate for growing jute
Jute needs a warm and humid climate, temperature fluctuations between 24°C and 37°C. However, the optimum temperature is 34 °C. There should not be constant rain or waterlogged conditions that adversely affect the jute plant.
During the seedling period, watering is not recommended. Consistent sunshine and rainy days are most conducive to the growth of jute.
History of Jute Cultivation in India
To begin with the history of jute in India, let us go back to the time when it was first established in India. Margaret Donnelly owned a jute mill in Dundee in the early 20th century and established India’s first jute mill. The East India Company first exported jute in 1793.
Jute fiber is a material used in one of the oldest industries in India. The main growing area of jute is in Bengal, especially around Kolkata. Mr. George Acland brought jute material to Dundee and built the first jute mill at Rishra on the Hooghly River near Calcutta in 1855. The first bag factory was established four years later.
The jute trade grew exponentially in the second half of the 19th century. Bangladesh (East Pakistan) had the best jute products after partition in 1947. After that, there was an impact on the jute economy of the Bengal Delta. Undivided land and the largest mill in Calcutta, India. Hence, at the time of partition, the jute trade in Bengal was divided.
India and Pakistan continued to engage in a number of trade deals involving raw jute and jute products on the Radcliffe line. And it was in September 1949 that the jute world felt the full impact of the brand.
Soon after partition, the “Grow More Jute Campaign” was launched. According to data provided by the West Bengal Department of Agriculture, 243,000 acres of paddy were converted to jute between 1950 and 1952. Similarly, efforts were made in East Pakistan to create an independent jute sector. A few months later, new football players were ordered. During the devaluation crisis, jute became an increasingly difficult commodity for the government in East Pakistan.
Jute Area and Production
In the whole world, the place of installation of jute and jute fiber is about 1.93 M and they have a production of 3.27 M t. The average production per word is 1,700 kg ha-1. India is a regional leader in beverage production.
Initially, the increase in jute production in India was due to the increase in acreage, but it has been hampered by the advent of cheaper synthetic fibers. Government of India has launched special UNDP, GOI National Jute Development Programme, International Jute Organization (IJO) and other programs as conservation projects.
The recovery process started in the 1980s and the trend continues unabated until now. Although there was a negative increase in the area during the 1980s (-2.87%) and 1990s (-0.78%), there was a positive productivity growth during the 1980s (0.87%) and 1990s (0.15%) in due to increased production. . production.
In India, jute area increased from 2.64 lakh ha in 1947-48 to 8.11 lakh ha in 2009-10 and fiber production increased from 16.7 lakh bales (1 bale = 180 kg) in 1947-48 to 107 lakh bales in 2009-10. . At the same time, productivity increased from 1138 to 2360 kg ha-1.
On average, West Bengal accounts for about 70% of the area and 75% of the jute production in the country, followed by Bihar with 20% of the area and 15% of the production.