Bajra or pearl millet is a type of millet that grows well. The botanical name for bajra is Pennisetum glaucum. This crop has been cultivated in the Indian and African regions since ancient times. As bajra can tolerate harsh growing conditions, people grow it in areas where other types of grains such as wheat or corn, cannot survive.
Overall, the Bajra is very well growing in the dry area of the lower level of land. Also, it is doing well in the bottom of the lower Value. Interestingly, it is often one of the first crops to be cultivated, with evidence dating back to 2000-2500 BC.
Today, Rajasthan is the main producer of Bajra as this special crop which is mainly grown in hot season can withstand harsh climate, drought, low fertility soil and can produce good harvest. even in soils with low salinity and high pH.
Although Bajra has been a staple food for thousands of years, it has become very popular in recent years due to its high nutritional value.
Growth conditions for Bajra
Bajra is a tropical crop and grows in areas with 40-50 cm of annual rainfall. It does not grow in areas where annual rainfall exceeds 100 cm. The ideal temperature for its growth is 25°-30°C. The bright sun after the rain helps in the beginning of its growth.
Bajra can be grown on poor brown soil, black and red soil and high soil. It is a kharif crop that is planted between May and September and harvested between October and February and March. It is grown as a single crop or mixed with cotton, jowar and ragi. It is a rain-fed crop, which is often difficult to irrigate.
Sowing methods vary from place to place. In U.P. It is usually grown by broadcast, while in Rajasthan, it is grown behind grass. The propagation method is unsatisfactory and often results in poor quality seeds and therefore poor quality seeds.
A better method of sowing is sowing through 3-pronged harros (triphali). This method is three times faster than single row sowing and saves time.
Sowing bajra seeds and bajra seeds is the best method. It is not only guaranteed good germination, but also a healthy plant. Planting seeds in a row also allows for different types of work that are traditionally done by hand, ox or engine. Sowing with seeds fitted with opening pattern and marking gives uniform stand and higher millet seeds than sowing with disk type at CAZRI, Jodhpur.
On sandy loam soils, flat beds should be preferred over beds and furrow beds. In hot soils, hill and furrow systems resulted in low plant density because the young plants affected the soil which was easy to do.
Studies conducted on soil compaction have shown that applying FYM at 10 t/ha to seed furrows immediately after sowing helps to ensure satisfactory plant stand and therefore high yield. FYM application reduces the impact of rain.
It also reduces the surface drying process by making the resistance of the crust lower which can be easily prevented by increasing the surface of the plumules of the emerging fruit.
Production and distribution of Bajra
Jowar suffered greatly at the hands of other cultures he admired. The area under jowar increased marginally from 155.71 lakh hectares in 1950-51 to 184.12 lakh hectares in 1960-61. After that, it changed but the general trend will decrease.
No less than 22 districts of Mahrashtra produce jowar, but Osmanabad, Nanded, Yavatmal, Buldhana, Parbhani, Kolhapur, Amravati and Ahmednagar are important producing districts. In the plains of Maharashtra, jowar is a staple food, where two crops are grown every year. The former is sown before the onset of the monsoon and the latter is sown after the monsoon. In some areas south of Pune, up to 80% of the cultivated area is devoted to jowar.
The plants are usually more than two meters tall and are used as fodder. Karnataka, which accounts for 18.51% of India’s jowar production, is the second largest producer. Jowar is grown in the northeastern part of the Karnataka hills. About 80% of Karnataka’s production comes from Dharwar, Bijapur, Raichur, Gulbarga, Belgaum, Chitradurga and Bidar districts.
The state suffers from a low yield of only 7.4 quintals/hectare against the national average of 7.7 quintals/hectare. Production can be increased by increasing the number of seeds. Madhya Pradesh is the third largest producer but is far behind Maharashtra in terms of production, providing only 7.87% of India’s total.
Ujjain, Dewas, Shajapur, West and East Nimar and Mandsaur are some important producing areas. Andhra Pradesh has seen a regional decline in production of jowar in recent years Kurnool Mahbubnagar, Khammam, Adilabad, Cuddapah, Nalgonda, Medak, Anantapur, Guntur etc. are the chief jowar producers of the district.
Tamil Nadu has the distinction of giving the highest yield of 9.6 quintals/hectare. Here, jowar is the second most important food crop after rice. Most of the production comes from the districts of Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and Dharmapuri. Jowar is grown as a food crop in southwestern Uttar Pradesh.
Also in Gujarat, it is grown as a food crop in Surat, Bharuch, Mahsana and Vadodara districts. The dry and sandy climate of Rajasthan provides ideal conditions for growing jowar. Kota, Sawai Madhopur, Jaipur, Tonk, etc. are the chief jowar producers of the district. However, Rajasthan suffers from the problem of low yield of 1.8 quintals/hectare which is the lowest in India.