Rubber is a polymer that can be stretched and broken. It appears naturally and can be customized. We have been using plastic products since ancient times. But in the 19th century, it became a very useful industrial tool for various purposes.
History of Rubber
The history of rubber is very interesting. The History of how the plastic was discovered varies depending on who is telling the story. One story tells of a Mayan Indian woman who was walking through the forest gathering food when she saw a weeping tree.
He brought back a sample of the tears to the tribal leader who found the unique latex. Perhaps you have heard that Christopher Columbus was responsible for the discovery of rubber when he visited Haiti in 1490 and saw the natives playing soccer. Or better yet, how his government sent a French astronomer to Peru in 1736 and returned with a sample of white flowing honey.
Rubber can be divided into two types based on its origin –
There are different types of synthetic rubbers such as EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene diene monomer), commercial black rubber, SBR (styrene butadiene rubber), NBR (nitrile butadiene rubber), IIR (isobutylene-isoprene) etc.
These are naturally occurring elastomers. Natural rubber consists of solid particles suspended in a white milky substance (called latex) that comes from the bark of certain tropical trees and -flow. This latex rubber is commonly found in countries like Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
It is made by the polymerization of isoprene (2 methyl-1,3-butadiene) which has the chemical formula (C5H8) n and is known as cis-1,4-polyisoprene. In simple terms, it can be said that they are made by joining isoprene monomers (C5H8) in the form of long chains.
Any elastomer is called synthetic rubber. Synthetic rubber is often made of other polymers of polyene monomers, and laminates including such a layer will be classified as other polymers if synthetic rubber is described as polysulfide rubber.
Elastomer is a material that has the mechanical property of being able to flex more elastically under stress than most materials while returning to its original size without permanent deformation. In many cases, synthetic rubber can be used instead of natural rubber, especially when better material properties are desired.
Various Planting methods
The land is first cleared of forests, and then properly prepared. a. Plastic seedlings are first planted in nurseries.
When the seeds are about one year old, they are planted in rows in the field with a space of about nine meters between them. vs. The area around the rubber tree is free of weeds and other unwanted vegetation. Grass is planted between the seedlings to prevent soil erosion.
Rubber seeds can take up to 7 years to mature and produce latex. Crops can provide income to the farmer at this time. e. Fertilizers are applied regularly and the plants are protected from pests and diseases.
The trees are regularly harvested to obtain latex. It takes skill and practice to make a plastic tree. Planting work starts early in the morning and ends before the afternoon rains. The tapper cuts about 2mm deep and about 1½ meters above the ground, which slopes down. The latex is collected in metal cups. Workers, after performing the bleeding operation, collect the latex in glasses and large buckets.
vs. A skilled worker can harvest up to 300 trees per day. The tree is usually tapped every other day. It should be avoided on rainy days.
Fresh latex should be protected from the sun. It should be sent to the plastic processing unit immediately.
Rubber latex must be cured before it hardens. The latex is hardened by adding formic acid and turns into a large block. The plastic blocks are put through a roller to remove the water and turn them into sheets. vs. Plastic sheets are dried outdoors or in a smokehouse. This is done to protect them.
The dried leaves are thoroughly checked, processed and finally sold in the domestic market or for export.
Conditions of the Rubber Industry in India
The rubber industry in India is growing as the economy grows and the demand for rubber increases.
Currently, the production of rubber in India is 8,50,000 tons per year and this figure is growing rapidly.
The demand for rubber in India is 12.90,000 tons per year and this number is increasing rapidly, it means that India will import at least 4,40,000 tons of rubber from the whole world, and this import will increase in ‘the future is like the difference. between production and consumption increases
For 2021-2022, India imported 5,46,369 tonnes of plastic and this number is expected to increase every year.
The main demand for rubber in India comes from industry, as the population increases and income increases, the demand for cars and tires will continue to grow in India.
Production and Distribution of Rubber
India is the third largest producer of natural rubber in the world, followed by Thailand and Indonesia, producing about 9% of the world’s production. From about 200 hectares in 1902-03, the total area under rubber plantations reached about 5.9 lakh hectares in 2003-04.
Similarly, the production which was 80 tonnes in 1910 increased to about 690,000 tonnes in 2003-04. The most important and significant factor is the increase in productivity from 354 kg/hectare in 1960-61 to 1663 kg/hectare in 2003-04 . Although the rubber plantation sector was dominated by large estates in the first fifty years, it has undergone major structural changes leading to the dominance of small houses.
Rubber Production In India
Today, smallholders account for 88% of the acreage in India’s rubber production. The average size of a small farm is only 0.49 hectares. However, the average productivity of small farmers during the period 2001-2002 was higher at 1,580 kg/hectare than the 1,509 kg/hectare of land production.
The situation in rubber production in India. Shows that India has made remarkable progress in three areas of rubber, namely production, area and yield , the distribution of natural rubber in India. This table clearly shows that almost all rubber is produced in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Kerala is a major producer of natural rubber, producing 595,000 tonnes or 92% of India’s total rubber production in 2002-03.
The districts of Kottayam, Kollam, Ernakulam, Kozhikode produce all the rubber of this state. Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of rubber but far behind Kerala, producing only 22,000 or 3.39% of India’s total in 2002-03.
Nilgiri, Madurai, Kanniyakumari, Coimbatore and Salem are rubber producing districts in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka produced 14,000 tonnes or 1.85% of India’s total production in 2002-03. Chikmagalur and Kodagu are industrial areas. Tripura and Andaman and Nicobar Islands also produced less rubber respectively in 2002-03.